Which ethical theory (or theories) makes the hardest demands? Are humans naturally ethical? Compare one affirmative and one negative answer to this question. Please be sure to support your answers.
There are three ethical theories exists which includes subjectivism, cultural relativism, and Egoism. Under Egoism, Ethical and Psychological Egoism exist. Psychological egoism makes the hardest demand compared to other theories. This theory states that human activities are motivated by self-interest, without considering the feeling of others and thus makes the human selfish.
Humans, in general, are naturally ethical and take the decisions which are right and good as stated in self-realization theories by Aristotle and Maslow. But sometimes situation makes them behave in an unethical. Psychological Egoism theory, are accepted by many and in certain cases they are unethical. For this Rachel’s explains that humans have a multiplicity of motives are ranged from love to hatred and as sometimes people think only about themselves, and thus they are selfish. On the other time, people will be more concern for others even without considering their concerns and needs. "In effect, the psychological egoist has only announced his determination to interpret people's behavior in a certain way, no matter what they do. Therefore, nothing that anyone could do could possibly count as evidence against the hypothesis. The thesis is irrefutable, but for that very reason it turns out to have no factual content. It is not a new and fascinating revelation at all (Rachels 2003).". Judging others based on another opinion of others without knowing truly about the person is the best example of Psychological Egoism.
Nietzsche's Moral and Political Philosophy (26 August 2004). StanFord Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online on February 1, 2010, from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nietzsche-moral-political/
Chalmers, D.J. 1996. The Conscious Mind. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP.
Rachels, J. (2003). The elements of moral philosophy (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.