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Harvard Referencing Guide

Book

1.1. Referencing a Book with One Author:

Citation order:

Author or Editor (year) Title. Edition (if there is one). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example In-text citation:

According to Secker (2010 p. 56) “most colleges also now have VLE’s, with the most common platform being the open-source system Moodle”.

Example Reference list item:

Secker, J. (2010) Copyright and e-Learning : a guide for practitioners. London: Facet Publishing.


1.2. Referencing a Book with Two Authors:

Citation order:

Author or Editor (year) Title. Edition (if there is one). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example In-text citation:

Reece and Walker (2007) argue that in order to make the best choice of which teaching strategy to use it is important that you are familiar with each and know where they might best be applied.

Example Reference list item:

Reece, I. and Walker, S. (2007) Teaching, training & learning : a practical guide. 6th ed. London: Business Education Publishers Limited.


1.3 Referencing a Book with More Than Three Authors:

Citation order:

Authors or editors (year) Title. Edition (if there is one). Place of publication: Publisher In the text, list the surname of the first author followed by et al. (this means ‘and others’) However in the bibliography you must list ALL of the authors’ names

Example In-text citation:

Gross et al. (2001 p.26) believes that “violent behaviour can also be seen at the cinema or on video”.

Example Reference list item:

Gross, R., McIlveen, R., Coolican, H., Clamp, A. and Russell, J. (2001) Psychology : a new introduction for A2. London: Hodder & Stoughton.

1.4. Referencing a Book Review

Citation order:

Author of the Review (year) ‘Name of the book being reviewed’. Title of feature. Name of publication. Date, page number.

Example from a review in a newspaper:

Alan Clark (2010) refers to The Finkler Question as “A terrifying ambitious novel, full of dangerous shallows and dark, deep water. It takes in the mysteries of male friendship, the relentlessness of grief and the lure of emotional parasitism”. Example Reference list item:

Clark, A (2010) ‘The Finkler Question’. Book of the Week. The Guardian. 14 August 2010, p5.

1.5. Referencing a Dictionary (if there is no Editor)

Citation order:

Author or editor (year) Title. Edition (if there is one). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example In-text citation :

The definition of psychology is ‘the scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context” (Oxford English Dictionary, 2001, p.21). Example Reference list item:

The Oxford English Dictionary (2001). 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

1.6. Referencing a Chapter within an Edited Book

Citation order:

Author or editor of chapter (year) Title of chapter in Author of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Page numbers.

Example In-text citation :

“A part of identifying student needs involves a consideration of their prior learning and experience” (Hobley 2008 pp. 32-65) Example Reference list item:

Hobley, J. (2008) Meeting the needs of learners in Fawbert, F. Teaching in post-compulsory education : skills, standards and lifelong learning. London: Continuum. pp. 32-65.

1.7 Referencing an Art Image in a Book

Citation order:

Artist (Date of Book) Name of painting/image. in Author of Book. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example In-text citation :

Henri Matisse’s Flowers and Sculpture (cited in Neret 2002) is a good example of ‘abstraction’ Example Reference list item:

Matisse, H. (2002) Flowers and Sculpture. in Neret, G. Henri Matisse. London: HarperCollins Publishers.


Journal

1.Referencing a Journal Article

Citation order:

Author or editor of article (year) Title of article. Name of journal. Volume (part), page number(s).

Example In-text citation:

According to Warnock (2010) the military reforms were an important part of the government's response to the failures of the Boer War.

Example Reference list item:

Warnock, B. (2010) The impact of the Boer War on Britain. 20th Century History Review. 5(3), pp.8-25. NB

If there are no Volume, Part or Issue numbers, please use the date instead

eg. Warnock, B. (2010) The impact of the Boer War on Britain. 20th Century History Review. 21st July, pp.8-25.


Newspaper

1.8. Referencing a Newspaper Article

Citation order:

Author or editor of article (year) Title of article. Name of newspaper. Date, page number(s).

Example In-text citation:

An office worker will ditch the nine-to-five and cycle12,000 miles across the planet for street children. (Bristow 2011, p.13)

Example Reference list item:

Bristow, T. (2011) Cycle ride to help street kids. Southport Visitor. 13 May, p.13.


Electronic sources

2.1 Referencing a Website with Organisations as Authors

Citation order:

Author or editor of website (year) Title of webpage [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed Date].

Example In-text citation:

The RSPCA (2012) are furious that the Government has decided to ignore public opinion and not ban the use of wild animals in circuses in England after all.

Example Reference list item:

RSPCA (2012) Government refuses ban on wild animals in circuses [online]. Available from: http://www.rspca.org.uk/media/news/story/- /article/EM_Ban_on_wild_animals_in_circuses_refused_May11 [Accessed 13 May 2014].


2.2 Referencing a Website with No Date

If the web page has no obvious date of publication/revision, use the Author plus no date in brackets. NB You still need to include the date you accessed the information.

Citation order:

Author or editor of website (no date) Title of webpage [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed Date].

Example In-text citation:

According to Lea (no date) “Criminal law then, notes those types of conflict which are regarded as serious enough to be responded to not just by individuals but by the State acting on behalf of the public”

Example Reference list item:

Lea, J. (no date). John Lea’s criminology website [online]. Available from http://www.bunker8.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/ [Accessed 3 June 2014].


2.3 Referencing an Online Journal

Citation order:

Author or editor of article (year) Title of article. Name of journal [online]. Volume (part number) (NB. if there are any – if not then use date). Available from: URL [Accessed Date].

Example In-text citation:

Yar (2011) has reported that “over the past three decades, an on-going debate has developed around the ways and extent to which the hierarchical, state-led provision of security and policing has been displaced “

Example Reference list item:

Yar, M. (2011) From the 'Governance of Security' to 'Governance Failure’: refining the criminological agenda. Internet Journal of Criminology [online]. July. Available from: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Yar_From_the_Governance_of_Security_to_ Governance_Failure_April_2011.pdf [Accessed 3 June 2014]


2.4 Referencing an eBook

Citation order:

Author (Year) Title [online]. Edition (if there is one). Place of publication: Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed Date]. Harvard Referencing Guide 11 Updated July 2015

Example In-text citation:

Sullo (2007) introduces a comprehensive theory of behaviour that challenges the prevailing external control model.

Example Reference list item:

Sullo, R. (2007) Activating the desire to learn [online]. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Available from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/southport/Doc?id=10156586&ppg=11 [Accessed 17 May 2014].


2.5 Referencing an Online Newspaper

Citation order:

Author or editor of article (year) Title of article. Name of newspaper [online]. Date. Available from: URL [Accessed Date].

Example In-text citation:

An office worker will ditch the nine-to-five and cycle 12,000 miles across the planet for street children. (Bristow, 2011)

Example Reference list item:

Bristow, T. (2011) Cycle ride to help street kids. Southport Visitor [online]. 13th May. Available from: http://www.southportvisiter.co.uk/southport-news/southport-southportnews/2011/05/13/southport-man-s-bid-to-cycle-12k-miles-to-south-africa-to-help-streetchildren-101022-28684674/ [Accessed 3 June 2014.


2.6 Referencing a Podcast

Citation order:

Author or presenter (year) Title of podcast. Title of website or podcast series [podcast]. Day month year of podcast release. Available at: URL [Accessed Date].

Example In-text citation:

Tim Waterstone (2010) admits that his novel In for a Penny in for a Pound is about a “certain bank in London”. He found the people there to be so awful that he went home and parodied them.

Example Reference list item:

Waterstone, T. (2010) Open book: books and authors. BBC Podcasts [podcast]. 17 May 2010. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/podcasts [Accessed 18 May 2014).


2.7 Referencing a DVD

Citation order:

Title (year) [Medium]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example In-text citation:

imilarly, West Side Story (1961) is an adaptation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet.

Example Reference list item:

West Side Story (1961) [DVD]. New York: MGM.


2.8 Referencing from YouTube

Citation order:

Originator of the online video (year video posted) Title of online video. Available from: URL [Accessed Date].

Example In-text citation:

Expert Village (2008) provide a demonstration on how to use basic woodworking tools, such as how to use a biscuit joiner.

Example Reference list item:

Expert Village (2008) How to use basic woodworking tools: using a biscuit joiner. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JI-PjJY14U [Accessed 17 May 2013]


2.9 Referencing an Online Image

Citation order:

Name of artist or photographer (Year image created) Title of work [type of medium]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Painting: {PAINTING PICTURE }
Example In-text citation:

VTaj Mahal, India (2011). Photograph by Richard I’Anson.

Example Reference list item:

I’Anson, R. (2011) Taj Mahal, India [photograph]. Available from: http://www.lonelyplanet.com/india/images/taj-mahal-india$352-52 [Accessed 14 August 2014).

Photograph: {TAJMAHAL}

2.10 Referencing an Online Government Report:

Citation order:

Author or Department (year) Title of Report. [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example In-text citation:

The Secretary of State for Education commissioned Professor Alison Wolf of King’s College London to carry out an independent review of vocational education.

Example Reference list item:

Department for Education (2011) Review of vocational education – The Wolf Report [online]. Available from: http://www.education.gov.uk/childrenandyoungpeople/youngpeople/qandlearning/a0 074953/review-of-vocational-education-the-wolf-report [Accessed 3June 2013].


2.11 Referencing Social Networking Sites (e.g. Facebook)

Citation order:

Author (year) ‘Title of page’ Title of Internet site. Date/month of posted message [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example In-text citation:

One student (Allen, 2013) liked a post.

Example Reference list item:

Allen, J. (2013) ‘Southport College’, Facebook, 4 June. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/southportcollege [Accessed 4 June 2014]


2.12 Referencing Tutors Notes from Virtual Learning Environments (Moodle)

Citation order:

Author/tutor (year) ‘Title of item’. Name of Academic Module [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed date].

Example In-text citation:

Collecting pictures and images (Library Learning Centre, 2013)
Example In-text citation:

Library Learning Centre (2013) ‘Collecting pictures and images into My Pictures’. Studybytes [online]. Available from: http://moodle2.southport.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=862 [Accessed 4 June 2014]


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Anglia Ruskin University

Books

1.Books with one Author

Use the title page, not the book cover, for the reference details. Only include the edition where it is not the first. A book with no edition statement is most commonly a first edition. The required elements for a book reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country): Publisher.

Example Reference list item:(1 st edition)

Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson. where 3rd edition Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.


2. Books with multiple authors

For books with multiple authors, all* the names should all be included in the order they appear in the document. Use an and to link the last two multiple authors. The required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place: Publisher.

Example Reference list item:(1 st edition)

Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus. Barker, R., Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988. Narrative analysis. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.


3. Chapters of edited books

For chapters of edited books the required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials., Year of chapter. Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor(s) initials first followed by surnames with ed. or eds. after the last name. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by full-stop.

Example Reference list item:(1 st edition)

Samson, C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In: S. Stone, ed. 1980. Humanities information research.Sheffield: CRUS. pp.44-68. Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health.Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2.


4.Multiple works by the same author

Where there are several works by one author and published in the same year they should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date. Remember that this must also be consistent with the citations in the text For multiple works the required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initals., Year followed by letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Example Reference list item:

Soros, G., 1966a. The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Soros, G., 1966b. Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


5.Books-translations/imprints/reprints

5.1 For works which have been translated the reference should include details of the translator, the suggested elements for such references being:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (name of translator, initials first, then surname) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example Reference list item:(1 st edition)

Canetti, E., 2001. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from German by J.A. Underwood. San Francisco: Arion. 5.2 For major works of historic significance, the date of the original work may be included along with the date of the translation:

Example Reference list item:

Kant, I., 1785. Fundamental principles of the metaphysic of morals. Translated by T.K. Abbott., 1988. New York: Prometheus Books.

Note: For works in another language, reference these in the same manner as an English language work but provide a translation. Students should check with their Faculty the validity of including original language works.


PDF

E-books and Pdfs

1. E-books available through the University Library

For e-books accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Followed by Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed date].

Example Reference list item:

Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed 12 May 2010]. Carlsen, J. and Charters, S., eds. 2007. Global wine tourism. [e-book] Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed 9 June 2008].


2.For an open access e-book freely available over the internet such as through Google books

The required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source andweb address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

Example Reference list item:

Cookson, J. and Church, S. eds., 2007. Leisure and the tourist. [e-book] Wallingford: ABS Publishers. Available at: Google Books [Accessed 9 June 2008].


3.For an e-book from specific e-readers and other devices such as Kindle, or Nook

The required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year, Title of book. [e-book type] Place of publication (if available): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address [Accessed date]. Patterson, M. 2012. Lost places in dreams. [Kindle DX version] Transworld Media. Available at: Amazon.co.uk [Accessed 9 June 2012].


4.For a pdf version of, for example, a Government publication or similar which is freely available:

The required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Authorship, Year. Title of documents. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where available [Accessed date].

Example Reference list item:

Bank of England, 2008. Inflation Report. [pdf] Bank of England. Available at: [Accessed 20 April 2009]. Department of Health, 2008. Health inequalities: progress and next steps. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at: [Accessed 9 June 2008].


Magazine/ Journal articles

For journal articles from an electronic source accessed through a password protected database from the University Library the required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if availalble. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed date]


For an article from a web based magazine or journal, which is freely available over the web, the required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Magazine, [online] Available at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) [Accessed date].

Example Reference list item:

Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan's new dawn. Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available at: [Accessed 22 June 2009].


For a journal abstract from a database where you have been unable to access the full article, the required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. Abstract only. Available through: Source [Accessed date].

Example Reference list item:

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Abstract only. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website [Accessed 12 June 2005].


For newspaper articles the required elements for a reference are:

Citation order:

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page numbers and column line.

Example Reference list item:

Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers.The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.


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Book:

Print

Citation order:

Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher

Example Reference list item:

Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing.


Online / electronic

Citation order:

Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Available from: URL [Date of access]

Example Reference list item:

Simons, N. E., Menzies, B. & Matthews, M. (2001) A Short Course in Soil and Rock Slope Engineering. London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from: http://www.myilibrary. com?ID=93941 [Accessed 18th June 2015].


Chapter in an edited book

Citation order:

Author of the chapter (Year of publication) Title of chapter followed by In: Editor (always put (ed.) after the name) Title (this should be in italics) Series title and number (if part of a series) Edition (if not the first edition) Place of publication (if there is more than one place listed, use the first named) Publisher Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where there are multiple pages)

Example Reference list item:

Partridge, H. & Hallam, G. (2007) Evidence-based practice and information literacy. In: Lipu, S., Williamson, K. & Lloyd, A. (eds.) Exploring methods in information literacy research. Wagga Wagga, Australia, Centre for Information Studies, pp. 149–170.


Journal article:

Print

Citation order:

Author (Year of publication) Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) Volume number Issue number Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers)

Example Reference list item:

Chhibber, P. K. & Majumdar, S. K. (1999) Foreign ownership and profitability: Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry. Journal of Law & Economics. 42 (1), 209–238.


Online / electronic

Most online articles will have a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and you should use this in your reference. The DOI is a permanent identifier provided by publishers so that the article can always be found. If there is no DOI then you should use the URL. Some lecturers will ask you to reference an online journal article as a print article, so always check your coursework guidance. To find the DOI, when you read an article online, check the article details as you will usually find the DOI at the start of the article. For more help, contact your librarian. If you read the article in a full-text database service, such as Factiva or EBSCO, and do not have a DOI or direct URL to the article you should use the database URL.

Citation order:

Author (Year of publication) Title of journal article Title of journal (this should be in italics) 16 Layouts for your reference list and bibliography Volume number Issue number Page numbers of the article (do not use ‘p’. before the page numbers) Available from: URL or DOI [Date of access]

Example Reference list item:

Arrami, M. & Garner, H. (2008) A tale of two citations. Nature. 451 (7177), 397–399. Available from: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v451/n7177/full/451397a.html [Accessed 20th January 2015]. Wang, F., Maidment, G., Missenden, J. & Tozer, R. (2007) The novel use of phase change materials in refrigeration plant. Part 1: Experimental investigation. Applied Thermal Engineering. 27 (17–18), 2893–2901. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.06.011 [Accessed 15th July 2015]. Read, B. (2008) Anti-cheating crusader vexes some professors. Chronicle of Higher Education. 54 (25). Available from: http://global.factiva.com/ [Accessed 18th June 2015].


Pre-print journal articles

Citation order:

Author/s (Year of writing) Title of journal article Submitted to / To be published in (if this information is with the article) Title of journal (in italics) 17 Layouts for your reference list and bibliography Name of repository (in italics) [Preprint] Available from: URL (if available) [Date of access]

Example Reference list item:

Silas, P., Yates, J.R. & Haynes, P.D. (2008) Density-functional investigation of the rhombohedral to simple cubic phase transition of arsenic. To be published in Physical Review B. Arxiv. [Preprint] Available from: http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.1692. [Accessed: 23rd July 2010]. In-text citation: (Silas, Yates & Haynes, 2008)


Conference proceeding: individual paper

Citation order:

Author (Year of publication) Title of conference paper followed by, In: Editor / Organisation (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) Title of conference proceeding (this should be in italics) Place of publication Publisher Page numbers (use ‘p.’ before a single page number and ‘pp.’ where there are multiple pages)

Example Reference list item:

Wittke, M. (2006) Design, construction, supervision and long-term behaviour of tunnels in swelling rock. In: Van Cotthem, A., Charlier, R., Thimus, J.-F. and Tshibangu, J.-P. (eds.) Eurock 2006: Multiphysics coupling and long term behaviour in rock mechanics: Proceedings of the International Symposium of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, EUROCK 2006, 9–12 May 2006, Liège, Belgium. London, Taylor & Francis. pp. 211–216.


Standard

Citation order:

Name of Standard Body / Institution (Year of publication) Standard number Title (this should be in italics) Place of publication Publisher

Example Reference list item:

British Standards Institution (2003) BS 5950–8:2003. Structural use of steelwork in building: code of practice for fire resistant design. London, BSI.


Report:

Citation order:

Author / Editor (if it is an editor always put (ed.) after the name) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Organisation Report number: followed by the number of the report (if part of a report series)

Example Reference list item:

Leatherwood, S. (2001) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic. U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Report number: 63.


Map

Citation order:

Author (usually the organisation responsible for publishing the map) (Year of publication) Title (this should be in italics) Scale Series title and number (if part of a series) Place of publication Publisher

Example Reference list item:

British Geological Survey. (1998) South London. 270, 1:50 000. London, British Geological Survey


Web page / website

Citation order:

Author / Editor (use the corporate author if no individual author or editor is named) (Year of publication) (if available; if there is no date, use the abbreviation n.d.) Title (this should be in italics) Available from: URL [Date of access]

Example Reference list item:

European Space Agency. (2015) Rosetta: rendezvous with a comet. Available from: http://rosetta.esa.int [Accessed 15th June 2015].

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Liverpool

Print

Citation order:

Author/editor, Year of publication (in round brackets), Title (in italics), Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition), Place of publication: publisher and Series and volume number (where relevant)


Book with one author

Example In-text citation:

According to Bell (2010, p. 23),…..

Example Reference list item:

Bell, J. (2010) Doing your research project. 5th edn. Maidenhead: Open University Press.


Book with two or three authors

Example In-text citation:

Goddard and Barrett (2007) suggested...

Example Reference list item:

Goddard, J. and Barrett, S. (2007) The health needs of young people leaving care. Norwich: University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies


Book with more than three authors

Example In-text citation:

This was proved by Young et al. (2005) ...

Example Reference list item:

Young, H.D., Freedman, R.A., Sandin, T. and Ford, A. (2005) Sears and Zemansky's university physics. 10th edn. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.


Book with an editor

Example In-text citation:

The formation of professions was examined in Prest (1987). Prest, W. (ed.) (1987) The professions in early modern England. London: Croom Helm.

Example Reference list item:

Young, H.D., Freedman, R.A., Sandin, T. and Ford, A. (2005) Sears and Zemansky's university physics. 10th edn. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.


Book with author(s) and editor(s)

Example In-text citation:

Caroline (2007) points out ...

Example Reference list item:

Caroline, N.L. (2007) Nancy Caroline's emergency care in the streets. 6th edn. Edited by Andrew N. Pollak, Bob Fellows and Mark Woolcock. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett.


Book with author(s) and editor(s)

Example In-text citation:

The beautiful work by Moxon (2013)...

Example Reference list item:

Moxon, J. (2013) The art of joinery. Rev. edn. Fort Mitchell, Ky.: Lost Art Press.


Book with author(s) and editor(s)

Example In-text citation:

The Percy tomb has been described as 'one of the master-pieces of medieval European art' (Treasures of Britain, 1990, p. 84).

Example Reference list item:

Treasures of Britain and treasures of Ireland (1990) London: Reader's Digest Association Ltd


Book with author(s) and editor(s)

Citation order:

Author of the chapter/section (surname followed by initials), Year of publication (in round brackets, Title of chapter/section (in single quotation marks),'in' plus author/editor of book, Title of book (in italics), Place of publication: publisher

Example In-text citation:

The view proposed by Franklin (2012, p. 88) ...

Example Reference list item:

Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in Smith, S.M. (ed.) The maltreatment of children. Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83–95.


Electronic book

Citation order:

Author/editor, Year of publication (in round brackets), Title of book (in italics), Place of publication: Publisher,

Example In-text citation:

In their analysis, Hremiak and Hudson (2011, pp. 36–39) ...

Example Reference list item:

Hremiak, A. and Hudson, T. (2011) Understanding learning and teaching in secondary schools. Harlow: Pearson Longman.


Journals

1.Print/electronic journal article

Citation order:

Author (surname followed by initials), Year of publication (in round brackets), Title of article (in single quotation marks), Title of journal (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for), Issue information, that is, volume (unbracketed) and, where applicable, part number, month or season (all in round brackets, Page reference and doi (if available)

Example In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (Norrie et al., 2012) ...

Example Reference list item:

Norrie, C., Hammond, J., D'Avray, L., Collington, V. and Fook, J. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565–578.


Electronic Journal articles

Citation order:
Example In-text citation:

Shirazi's review article (2010) ...

Example Reference list item:

Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), pp. 323– 326. doi: 10.1080/02619761003602246.


Web pages with no author

Citation order:

Title of the web page (in italics), Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets), Available at: URL, (Accessed: date)

Example In-text citation:

Illustrations of the houses can be found online (Palladio's Italian villas, 2005). Example Reference list item: Palladio's Italian villas (2005) Available at: http://www.boglewood.com/palladio/ (Accessed: 23 August 2012).


Individual Conference Papers

Citation order:

Author of paper, Year of publication (in round brackets), Title of paper (in single quotation marks), Title of conference: subtitle (in italics), Location and date of conferencePlace of publication: publisher, Page references for the paper,

Example In-text citation:

Cook (2000) highlighted examples ...

Example Reference list item:

Cook, D. (2000) 'Developing franchised business in Scotland', Small firms: adding the spark: the 23rd ISBA national small firms policy and research conference. Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, 15–17 November. Leeds: Institute for Small Business Affairs, pp. 127–136.


Internal Reports (Unpublished Reports)

Citation order:

Author or organization, Year produced (in round brackets), Title of report (in italics, Internal report (including name of institution)Unpublished

Example In-text citation:

Recommendations in the report (Harris, 2013) ...

Example Reference list item:

Harris, G. (2013) Focus group recommendations. Internal LGU report. Unpublished.


Theses or dissertations

Citation order:

Author, Year of submission (in round brackets), Title of thesis (in italics), Degree statement, Degree-awarding body, If viewed online: Available at: URL(Accessed: date), Updated 08/06/16 PC

Example In-text citation:

Research by Tregear (2001) and Parsons (2011) ...

Example Reference list item:

Parsons, J.D. (2011) Black holes with a twist. PhD thesis. Durham University. Available at: http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/846 (Accessed: 14 August 2012). Tregear, A.E.J. (2001) Speciality regional foods in the UK: an investigation from the perspectives of marketing and social history. Unpublished PhD thesis. Newcastle University.


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Book:

Print

Citation order:

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of book [online] (if applicable). Edition (if not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example Reference list

Woods, P., 1999. Successful writing for qualitative researchers. London: Routledge.

Example Reference list item:

McMillan, K. and Weyers, J., 2012. The study skills book [online]. 3rd edition. Harlow: Pearson.


Contribution in an edited book: a chapter

Citation order:

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of contribution. Followed by In: Editor’s Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., ed. or eds. (if applicable). (Year, if different to contribution). Title of book [online] (if applicable). Edition (if not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher, Page number(s) of contribution.

Example Reference list

Briassoulis, H., 2004. Crete: endowed by nature, privileged by geography, threatened by tourism? In: Bramwell, B., ed. Coastal mass tourism: diversification and sustainable development in Southern Europe. Clevedon: Channel View, 48-67.


Scanned book

Citation order:

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of book [type of e-reader edition]. Edition (if not the first). Place of publication: Publisher (if available).

Example Reference list item:

Northedge, A., 2012. The good study guide [Kindle edition]. Milton Keynes: Open University Worldwide.


JOURNAL ARTICLE

Article in a print or online journal

Citation order:

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal [online] (if applicable), Volume number and (part number), Page numbers or e-number of article (if available).

Example Reference list

1. Kavaratzis, M. and Hatch, M. J., 2013. The dynamics of place brands: an identity-based approach to place branding theory. Marketing theory, 13 (1), 69-86. 2. Caldara, R., Zhou, X. and Miellet, S., 2010. Putting culture under the spotlight reveals universal information use for face recognition. PLOS one [online], 5 (3), e9708.


Article in an online journal described as ‘In Press’

For articles that are described as ‘In Press’ you must include the full URL as the article has not be assigned a precise volume and issue number:

Citation order:

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal [online] (if applicable), Volume number and (part number), Page numbers or e-number of article (if available).

Example Reference list

Pisanua, B., Chapuis, J., Dozièresa, A., Basset, F., Poux, V. and Vourc’h, G., 2013. High prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the European red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris in France. Ticks and tick-borne diseases [online], In Press. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S1877959X13000800 [Accessed 1 July 2015].


Article in an online journal described as ‘In Press’

For articles that are described as ‘In Press’ you must include the full URL as the article has not be assigned a precise volume and issue number:

Citation order:

Surname/Family Name, INITIALS., Year. Title of article. Title of journal [online] (if applicable), Volume number and (part number), Page numbers or e-number of article (if available).

Example Reference list

Pisanua, B., Chapuis, J., Dozièresa, A., Basset, F., Poux, V. and Vourc’h, G., 2013. High prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in the European red squirrel Sciurus vulgaris in France. Ticks and tick-borne diseases [online], In Press. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/ pii/S1877959X13000800 [Accessed 1 July 2015].


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Apps

Citation order:

DEVELOPER, Year. Name of app (version) [mobile app]. Available from: URL TWITPIC INC., 2014. Twitpic (version 1.2.1) [mobile app]. Available from: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.twitpic

Example Reference list item:

DROIDLA, 2014. QR Droid Private (version 5.3.3) [mobile app]. Available from: https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=la.droid.qr.priva&hl=en


Blogs

Citation order:

AUTHOR, Year. Title of the posting. Title of the site. [Blog online]. Day & month of posting. Available from: web address [Date of access].

Example Reference list item:

BROOKS, T., 2013. Government should make greater use of university academics as specialist consultants. LSE: British Politics and Policy. [Blog online]. 23 August. Available from: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/politicsandpolicy/in-praise-of-the-academicconsultant/


Book (with one author)

Citation order:

AUTHOR, Year. Title (in italics). Edition (if not the 1st). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example Reference list item:

BARKER, P., 1993. Michel Foucault: subversions of the subject. 2nd ed. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.


Book (with two authors)

Example Reference list item:

JOHNSON, J.Y. and KEOGH, J., 2010. Pediatric nursing demystified. A self teaching guide. New York: McGraw Hill.

Books and journal articles with more than three authors

For four or more authors, give the name of the first author then ‘et al.’ in your essay text. ‘Et al.’ means ‘and others’. You should list all of the authors in your bibliography.

Example Reference list item:

BOCIJ, P., CHAFFEY, D., GREASLEY, A. and HICKIE, S., 2005. Business information systems: technology, development and management for the e-business. 3rd ed. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.


Book (information about the edition)

Citation order:

You should include information about the edition of a book where it is given. This is because different editions of books may contain different material or have different page numbering.

Example Reference list item:

BAASE, S., 2013. A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal and Ethical Issues for Computing Technology. 4th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall.


Broadcasts

Citation order:

Title. Year. Broadcasting organisation and Channel. Date. Time of transmission. The Culture Show. 2013. BBC2. 20 March. 2200 hrs.

Example Reference list item:

Doctor Who. 2013. Episode 8, Cold War. BBC1. 13 April. 1800 hrs. Broadcasts (interviews within)


Broadcast online (iPlayer/4OD)

Citation order:

Title. Year. Broadcasting organisation and channel [type of medium]. Day/Month of broadcast. Time of broadcast. Available from: URL [Date accessed].

Example Reference list item:

100 Seconds to Beat the World: The David Rudisha Story. 2014. BBC4 [online]. 22 July. 22:00 hrs. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b04bdr54/100- seconds-to-beat-the-world-the-david-rudisha-story [Accessed 23 July 2014].

Example Reference list item:

The secret life of students. 2014. Series 1 Episode 3. Channel 4OD [online] 17 July. 20:00 hrs. Available from: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/the-secret-life-ofstudents/4od#3726817[Accessed 23 July 2014].